Sunday, November 8, 2009

Switchgear and control equipment

1. The 3 most imp. characteristic for any relay:

i. Pickup Current valueii. Time Delay iii. Relay Coordination is ultimately determined by the type of Grounding used in Distribution Systems: a. Isolated/ Unearthed Neutral b. Impedance-earthed Neutral c. Solidly (or low impedance) earthed Neutral- In this, the network is generally earthed on the Neutral of an i/coming delta/star tx.former. When this neutral is not accessible, the network is earthed either through and zig-zag tx.former or through a star/delta tx.former connected to the main busbar.

2. When a Fault occurs, Electrodynamic and Thermal stresses built up.

3. For an Induction. motor, a starting current of 6 times the Rated Current(Full Load Current) and a Locked Rotor Resistance , R1 of 3 times the R0 (Running Resist.) causes I2 * r to be 6 X 6 X 3 or 108 times normal.

4. All the elements of universal relay are organized under the application of Feeder Motor Breaker

5. Feeder application group: It provides 3 separate sets of Instantaneous, Definite-Time & Inverse-Time elements.

Instantaneous: Their operating time does not depend upon the current level. This responds to Phase current and provided conventional Phase fault protection.

Definite-Time OR Independent Time relays: Their operating time depends on the current level. This responds to Negative-Sequence Current and provides Phase to Phase fault protection.

Application: Independent Time relays are used when the short-circuit level is very high OR when short circuit current is likely to vary widely at and given point (eg- when and network is supplied from small generators whose short circuit decrement curve falls off rapidly.)

Inverse-Time OR Dependent Time relays: This responds to Residual Current and provides conventional ground fault protection.

Application: Dependent Time relays are used when:

i. The operation of network includes high-level short-time overloads. ii. Magnetizing inrush currents at switch-on may be considerable for several tenths of and second. iii. Relay operation must be coordinated with a large no. of fuses.

6. Motor application group: It shares the Phase, Negative-Sequence and Ground Instantaneous and Definite-Time elements to protect the motor of winding faults or faults in the connecting leads. Another element, responding to both Positive-Sequence & Negative-Sequence current, provides for Overload, Locked rotor, or unbalanced current conditions.

Tuesday, November 3, 2009



1 . Identify the correct Terminal/Connector for the cable in use.This can be done by checking the marking on the connector or from the labels attached to the packages.

2 . Necessary cable preparation to be done using suitable stripper to remove the insulation to the distance equal to the insertion depth of the connector plus suitable extra allowances.(3mm to 5mm)

3 . Brush the surface of the stranded conductor to remove any oxides if present.

4 . Insert the conductor in to the barrel of the connector.Orientation of the palm of the connector should be ensured for the equipment where it is to be connected.

5 . Suitable crimping dies / tools should be selected to ensure that the joints made are mechanically strong.Good joint results into good electrical continuity.

6 . Ensure proper crimping series(as mentioned above)

7 . Clean the surface where the terminal is to be fixed.Necessary nut,bolts,washer as indicated should be used.